To separate a series of words that already contain commas. Use a Semicolon: (see pages 89 and 90 in APA manual) 1. Consider this example from The Everyday Writer: 2. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. LeTourneau, citing Geoffrey Nunberg, states that when semicolons substitute for commas is a series it is called “promotion to semicolon” (English Grammar 278). Think whether you are using the semicolon for effect, or for affect. However, if any item in a list of three or more items already contains commas, use … Bulleted Lists. For example, all items might be nouns or all items might be phrases that begin with a verb. These are some of the common problems that students and researches have with commas. They can also separate two main clauses or grouped items in a list. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. 89–90). A good use of a semicolon allows a reader to connect two independent thoughts without losing track of either. 1. Example ü At the University of New England, there are ten Schools: Arts; Behavioural, Cognitive and ... (APA REFERENCING STYLE REQUIRES THE USE OF UPPER CASE AFTER THE COLON IN A TITLE) Begin a new line with each subsequent number, indenting 1/2 inch from the left margin. Rule 3: Semicolons separate complex items in a list that already has commas. To draw additional attention to items, APA Style also supports the use of lettered lists, numbered lists, and bulleted lists. Example: April 19, 2010, was the date on the card. Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors (this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors). List all publishers in the order they appear separating names with a semicolon. Mosts lists are simple lists, in which commas (or semicolons in the case of lists in which items contain commas) are used between items, including before the final item (see more information and examples on the lettered lists page). Commas play an important role in academic writing because it helps the authors communicate technical information. For example, all items might be nouns or all items might be phrases that begin with a verb. To separate a series of words that already contain commas. Provides APA Style guidelines on correct colon use. This Research Guide has been created to help students use APA style in their writing. Two independent clauses. Lists are covered in Chapter 6 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition, Guidelines for effective communication of behavioral science research. Use a Semicolon: (see pages 89 and 90 in APA manual). To separate two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction. This handout explains the most common uses of three kinds of punctuation: semicolons (;), colons (:), and dashes (—). Rule 4: this symbol can be used instead of connecting words such as and, but, or, etc. Another use of semicolons to separate items in a series when the items in the list themselves contain commas. Also known as the Oxford comma, the serial comma is the final comma in a list of three items or more, and it is used immediately before and , or , and occasionally nor . (Note that APA 6 only recommended the option to punctuate lists with commas or semicolons.) For example, one author might prefer list items to end in semicolons, while another prefers full stops.It’s challenging enough for each author to apply their own rules consistently. Spacing. Serial Commas. Many writers are lost regarding the differences between using a colon and a semicolon, often using these punctuations incorrectly. In Part 3, we’ll look at how to use lowercase letters to identify elements of a list in APA Style. More examples of commas and semicolons within lists can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association on pages 63–65 (3.04 Seriation), on page 88 (4.03 Comma), and on pages 89–90 (4.04 Semicolon). Mosts lists are simple lists, in which commas (or semicolons in the case of lists in which items contain commas) are used between items, including before the final item (see more information and examples on the lettered lists page). Provide the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication for articles, books, etc. Use Commas to present items in a list of three or more things: 2. Example: Jones (2014) argued that intelligence was fixed; Smith (2011) argued that ability could be fluid. This page reflects guidance from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual.. Go to 7th edition guidelines When the elements of a series do not fit naturally into a sentence's construction, use a colon to introduce them. Semicolons separate items within a list, while a colon precedes and introduces a list. To draw additional attention to items, APA Style also supports the use of lettered lists, numbered lists, … 1. 2. To separate two independent clauses joined by a conjunction. To separate a clause that adds information to a sentence but if removed would leave the sentence grammatical correct. According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition), for ideas that need to be enumerated in a specific order, such as steps in a procedure or to indicate importance, use Arabic numerals followed by a period for each point: 3. This is a complete guide to APA (American Psychological Association) in-text and reference list citations. Use a semicolon when separating two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction . This easy-to-use, comprehensive guide makes citing any source easy. Cite every source used in your manuscript: articles, books, lectures, websites and digital object identifiers (DOIs), whether you have a direct quotation or not. by Chelsea Lee Punctuation Junction: A series about what happens when punctuation marks collide. Example: The prisoner shifted uncomfortably in his chair; sweat began to bead his brow. Use a colon in the following instances. More Examples of Semicolons in Lists Bread, milk, butter, cheese, lamb, beef, and onions Bread, milk, butter, and cheese from the corner shop; lamb and beef … Example: The cages were lined with cedar chips, and a separate water supply was provided for each hamster. Type complete sentences after each number, capitalizing the first word in the sentence and placing proper end punctuation after each item. However, punctuation marks are small and can be difficult to spot. 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