, NASA's Juno mission arrived at Jupiter on July 4, 2016 and was expected to complete thirty-seven orbits over the next twenty months.  Juno would complete 12 science orbits before the end of its budgeted mission plan, ending July 2018. πάντές τ᾽ ἐξάπτεσθε θεοὶ πᾶσαί τε θέαιναι: This moon was later named Amalthea. , The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small, only 3.13°, so its seasons are insignificant compared to Earth and Mars. It is covered in swirling cloud stripes. Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. It is known to have existed since at least 1831, and possibly since 1665. )", Photographs of Jupiter circa 1920s from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections, Interactive 3D gravity simulation of the Jovian system, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jupiter&oldid=998825603, Astronomical objects known since antiquity, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It has big storms like the Great Red Spot, which has been going for hundreds of years. Lacking a rocky surface and, in fact, no surface does not affect the planet’s forces, winds, and hurricanes.  In turn, Jupiter was the counterpart to the mythical Greek Zeus (Ζεύς), also referred to as Dias (Δίας), the planetary name of which is retained in modern Greek.  These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. Jupiter and Saturn are the gas giants of the Solar System. The Archaic Greek poet Homer's Iliad describes the god as stronger than all the other deities put together; the king of the gods boasts that his pulling strength is greater than the others' combined and that he cannot be beaten in a tug of war: εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε πειρήσασθε θεοὶ ἵνα εἴδετε πάντες: The clouds form when gas elements reach their dew point in the atmosphere. Descending toward the center of Jupiter, the planet increases gravity. Jupiter lies pretty close to the limit of what we’d call a gas giant. , Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ἐρύσαιτ᾽ ἐξ οὐρανόθεν πεδίον δὲ Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0.048, Jupiter is slightly over 75 million km nearer the sun at perihelion than aphelion. , Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, spanning over 5,000 km (3,000 mi) in altitude. Giant planets are also called Jovian Planets.  , Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner: because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System there are more impacts on Jupiter, such as comets, than on the Solar System's other planets.  The four largest moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, collectively known as the "Galilean moons", and are visible from Earth with binoculars on a clear night. The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then more than two thousand have been discovered.  Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur, as well as on Saturn and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune.  Despite this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun; the amount of heat produced inside it is similar to the total solar radiation it receives. As it is a gas giant, its density is 24% of Earth’s. , Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet.  In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. This corresponds to about 13 times the mass of Jupiter, meaning that Jupiter itself is incapable of ever ‘igniting’. Its originally designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio antenna, although extensive information was still gained about the Jovian system from Galileo. A fairly distinct retrograde group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees. Stunning 'lucky' image of Jupiter taken in infrared turns the gas giant into a 'jack-o-lantern' and reveals how the planet's tumultuous atmosphere creates 50-mile deep lightning storms  When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can be bright enough for its reflected light to cast visible shadows, and is on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). , The eight innermost regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator, are thought to have formed alongside Jupiter, whilst the remainder are irregular moons and are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids. Ole Rømer deduced that light does not travel instantaneously (a conclusion that Cassini had earlier rejected), and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. The gas giant, Jupiter, has about twice as much mass as the rest of the planets in our solar system combined, making it a force to be reckoned with. On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9,275 km (5,763 mi) longer than the diameter measured through the poles. Great Red Spot has been changing since it was spotted.  It orbited the planet for over seven years, conducting multiple flybys of all the Galilean moons and Amalthea. Decimetric radio emission (with wavelengths measured in centimetres) was first observed by. , In 1892, E. E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch (910 mm) refractor at Lick Observatory in California. However, the formation timescales of terrestrial planets resulting from the grand tack hypothesis appear inconsistent with the measured terrestrial composition. After all, Jupiter wanted to compete with the Sun someday. On the other hand, Jupiter is the quintessential gas giant.  When Juno reaches the end of the mission, it will perform a controlled deorbit and disintegrate into Jupiter's atmosphere. The journey inwards in the solar system followed a spiralling course in which Jupiter continued to circle around the sun, albeit in an increasingly tight path due to gravitational forces from the surrounding gases in the solar system. " As supreme god of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter was the god of thunder, lightning and storms, and appropriately called the god of light and sky. , Due to the magnitude of Jupiter's mass, the center of gravity between it and the Sun lies just above the Sun's surface, the only planet in the solar system for which this is true. Why are these planets called gas giants and ice giants? This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors by friction. While a spacecraft would have nowhere to land on Jupiter, it wouldn’t be able to fly through unscathed either.  In his 2nd century work the Almagest, the Hellenistic astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus constructed a geocentric planetary model based on deferents and epicycles to explain Jupiter's motion relative to Earth, giving its orbital period around Earth as 4332.38 days, or 11.86 years. Jupiter is called a gas giant because it’s made of gases, not rocks, and it’s really big.  For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about 500 M⊕ (1.6 Jupiter masses) the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased pressure that its volume would decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. , During the 1660s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. The mean apparent magnitude is −2.20 with a standard deviation of 0.33. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.  Regularly these systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's (super-Earths), orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, and sometimes also Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star. Jupiter is a gas giant and doesn't have a solid surface, but it may have a solid inner core about the size of Earth. Jupiter is sometimes called a failed star because it is made up of the same elements as the Sun. The four … Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as −2.94 at opposition down to −1.66 during conjunction with the Sun. Its mass is 2.5 times that of all the other planets combined.  The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5.2 times the average distance between Earth and the Sun, or 5.2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11.86 years. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. , Several gas giant exoplanets are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days). σειρὴν χρυσείην ἐξ οὐρανόθεν κρεμάσαντες  The Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans and Japanese called it the "wood star" (Chinese: 木星; pinyin: mùxīng), based on the Chinese Five Elements. Jupiter's mass is 320 Earth masses, while we know from the Juno mission that the rock/ice in the core account for 5–25 of these Earth … Such planets lack outer crusts and as the name would suggest, they're overwhelmingly composed of gasses. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface.  Flights to planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. The Chinese historian Xi Zezong has claimed that Gan De, an ancient Chinese astronomer, discovered one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained. Some horizontal bands result from fluids rapidly rotating. Sometimes it looks more red or brown, showing the new material it spins around. Funding difficulties have delayed progress. These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad.  Jupiter's radius is about one tenth the radius of the Sun, and its mass is one thousandth the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar. During the mission, the spacecraft will be exposed to high levels of radiation from Jupiter's magnetosphere, which may cause future failure of certain instruments and risk collision with Jupiter's moons.  It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment. These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth. A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting. The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three systems are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. This process causes Jupiter to shrink by about 1 mm/yr. Saturn was named after the Roman god of agriculture.  Jupiter experiences about 200 times more asteroid and comet impacts than Earth.  The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.31° compared to Earth. It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red. , In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence.  Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa. A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance.  Upper-atmospheric lightning has been observed in Jupiter's upper atmosphere, bright flashes of light that last around 1.4 milliseconds. System I applies from the latitudes 10° N to 10° S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30.0s.  It is estimated that the core is 0.3–0.5 of the planetary radius, and contains heavy elements 7–25 the mass of Earth.  An additional eight satellites were discovered before the flyby of the Voyager 1 probe in 1979. Jupiter is mainly made of gas at different phases. , Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles always receive less solar radiation than the planet's equatorial region.  However, it has significantly decreased in size since its discovery. You see, Jupiter — located between Mars and Saturn — acts as a sort of sentinel to Earth. lay hold of it all of you, gods and goddesses Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter, making its closest approach to the planet in December 1973; Pioneer 10 identified plasma in Jupiter's magnetic field and also found that Jupiter's magnetic tail is nearly 800 million kilometres long, covering the entire distance to Saturn. Jupiter lies pretty close to the limit of what we’d call a gas giant. Compared to what we see from Earth, the Sun looks five times smaller and 27 times fainter from Jupiter. , The New Horizons probe flew by Jupiter in 2007 for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. , Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium by percent volume of gas molecules.  The water clouds are assumed to generate thunderstorms in the same way as terrestrial thunderstorms, driven by the heat rising from the interior. αὐτῇ κεν γαίῃ ἐρύσαιμ᾽ αὐτῇ τε θαλάσσῃ: The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind. , The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. Jupiter is sometimes called a failed star because it is made up of the same elements as the Sun. The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, Saturn and the rings: gravity’s masterpiece, The Discovery of Black Holes: From Theory to Actuality, Ancient Astronomy—From Stonehenge to the Great Pyramids: The Torch Podcast, Large Earthlike Planet Could Have Life-Sustaining Qualities. , In April 2017, scientists reported the discovery of a "Great Cold Spot" in Jupiter's thermosphere at its north pole that is 24,000 km (15,000 mi) across, 12,000 km (7,500 mi) wide, and 200 °C (360 °F) cooler than surrounding material. , Jupiter is the only planet whose barycenter with the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun, though by only 7% of the Sun's radius. Nine spacecraft have studied Jupiter up close. However, the planet is huge enough to contain other elements as well, such as oxygen and carbon.  This field is thought to be generated by eddy currents—swirling movements of conducting materials—within the liquid metallic hydrogen core. Relative size isn't the only thing setting Earth and Jupiter apart. It performed a flyby maneuver to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. They believed that some social and natural events connected to Erentüz's movements on the sky. , The Great Red Spot is larger than the Earth. , The next mission to encounter Jupiter was the Ulysses solar probe. The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. As we get closer to the planet, even more details become visible in the atmosphere, resulting from turbulent winds, storms, and clouds. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.  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